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National Health Accounts: information, usually in the form of indicators, a country may collect on its health expenditures. Indicators may include total health expenditure, public expenditure, private expenditure, out-of-pocket expenditure, tax-funded and other public expenditure, social security expenditure, public expenditure on health.

National Level Planning: the continuous, comprehensive and coordinated planning for the allocation or investment of a country's resources in a way that achieves the desired pace or level of economic and social development.

Natural Antibodies: antibodies that occur naturally without deliberate antigen stimulation.

Natural Capital: the environment and natural resources.

Natural Killer Lymphocytes (NK Cells): lymphocytes that are active in the immune surveillance of tumor. NK cells can lyse malignant target cells in vitro and appear to need no prior sensitization.

Near-term: thirty-four or more completed weeks of gestation.

Need: what a person requires in terms of health care.

Negative Predictive Value: in screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that an individual with a negative test result does not have the condition is referred to as the predictive value of a negative test.

Neighborhood: the term neighborhood usually refers to a local area which is defined in some way physically (for example, an estate or an area bounded by major roads) or by people's perceptions of what constitutes their local area. Neighborhoods are usually fairly small. For example, neighborhoods designated for New Deal for Communities funding are usually made up of around 4,000 households or around 10,000 people.

Neonatal Death: death of a live-born infant during the first 28 completed days of life. May be subdivided into early neonatal death, occurring during the first seven days of life, and late neonatal death, occurring after the seventh day but before 28 completed days of life.

Neonatal Depression: clinical signs of neonatal depression include low Apgar score and its components and correlates, such as hypotonia; depressed reflexes including cry, suck, Moro's embrace; decreased consciousness; difficulty in initiating and maintaining respiration; poor color; and bradycardia.

Neonatal Encephalopathy: a clinically defined syndrome of disturbed neurologic function in the earliest days of life in the term infant, manifested by difficulty with initiating and maintaining respiration, depression of tone and reflexes, subnormal level of consciousness, and often by seizures.

Nervous System: voluntary nervous system and the involuntary nervous system are composed of the brain, the spinal cord, and sensory nerves, which provide messages to the brain from the body, and motor nerves, which provide messages from the brain to the muscles and help muscles function.

Network: a grouping of individuals, organizations and agencies organized on a non hierarchical basis around common issues or concerns, which are pursued proactively and systematically, based on commitment and trust.

Neu: see c-erb-b2 proto-oncogene.

Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction: condition in which there is an abnormality of the nerve supply to the lower urinary tract that results in incontinence or the inability to completely empty the bladder (urinary retention). It is usually caused by neurological conditions, such as diabetes, stroke, or spinal cord injury.

NGO: Non-Governmental Organization.

Nitrogenous Base: a nitrogen-containing molecule having the chemical properties of a base. DNA contains the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). See also -- DNA.

Nocturnal Enuresis: complaint of loss of urine during sleep. In children it is called bedwetting.

Nocturnal Frequency: needing to void one or more times per night between the time the person goes to bed with the intention of sleeping and the time the person wakes with the intention of rising.

Nocturnal Polyuria: present when more than one third of the 24-hour output occurs at night (normally 8 hours while person is in bed). The nighttime urine output excludes the last void before sleep but includes the first void of the morning.

Non-Contributing Register: a register that does not submit data, either directly or indirectly, to the Central Repository. This is because some registers may wish to be part of the Register Network but do not meet one or more of the Criteria for a Contributing Register.

Non-Experimental Research Design: lacking one or more of the features of internal control (e.g., random assignment, a comparison group) that characterizes true experimental designs (also known as pre-experimental designs).

Nonmaleficence: it is the obligation not to harm or cause injury and is best known in the maxim primum nonnocere: "First, do no harm". Although there are some subtle distinctions between nonmaleficence and beneficence, they often are considered as manifestations of a single principle. These two principles taken together are operative in almost every decision to treat patient, because every medical or surgical treatment has both benefits and risks, which must be balanced knowledgeably.

Non-Probability Sample: any non-randomized sample. A non probability sample is one in which individuals are selected for a survey on the basis of some shared characteristic. For example, all the students in the same classroom, or all the patients attending a diabetes clinic. These examples, also known as convenience samples, introduce a bias into the measurement of the outcome of interest. For example, patents who attend diabetes clinic may either already know or suspect that they suffer from the disease. Thus, the prevalence of diabetes in this sample is likely to be very high, and not representative of the prevalence of diabetes in the community.

Non-Reassuring Fetal Heart Rate Monitor Strip/Tracing: fetal heart rate patterns that may in some cases suggest the fetus is depressed, hypoxic, or acidotic, including persistent variable decelerations of fetal heart rate that become progressively deeper or longer lasting (generally to <70 beats per minute and lasting >60 seconds) and show persistent slow return to baseline, persistent late decelerations, prolonged deceleration (an isolated, abrupt decrease to levels below the baseline lasting at least 60-90 seconds), and sinusoidal heart rate pattern (regular oscillation of the baseline long-term variability resembling a sine wave, lasting at least 10 minutes, usually occurring at a rate of 3-5 cycles per minute and an amplitude of 5-15 beats per minute higher and lower than the baseline, not to be confused with benign small, frequent accelerations of low amplitude).

Nonsense Mutation: a nucleotide substitution that results in a truncated protein product by generating a stop codon specifying premature cessation of translation within an open reading frame.

Non-Specific Immunization: refers to stimulation of the general immune response by the use of materials (e.g., BCG or phytohemagglutinin) that are not antigenically related to the specific tumor.

Northern Blot: a technique for transferring RNA from an electrophoresis gel to a nitrocellulose filter on which it can be hybridized to a complementary DNA (cDNA) probe. A gel-based laboratory procedure that locates mRNA sequences on a gel that are complementary to a piece of DNA used as a probe. See also -- DNA, library.

Nuclear Transcription Factors: proteins involved in regulating the expression of genes by controlling transcription. Some factors enhance and others repress gene expression and others do both, depending on the intracellular environment.

Nuchal Translucency Measurement: accumulated fluid behind the fetal neck is measured in a standardized way.

Nuclear Transfer: a laboratory procedure in which a cell's nucleus is removed and placed into an oocyte with its own nucleus removed so the genetic information from the donor nucleus controls the resulting cell. Such cells can be induced to form embryos. This process was used to create the cloned sheep "Dolly". See also -- cloning.

Nucleolar Organizing Region: a part of the chromosome containing rRNA genes.

Nucleotide: a component of a DNA or RNA molecule composed of a nitrogenous base, one deoxyribose or ribose sugar, and one phosphate group. In DNA, adenine specifically joins to thymine and guanine joins to cytosine. In RNA, uracil replaces thymine. A subunit of DNA or RNA consisting of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA). Thousands of nucleotides are linked to form a DNA or RNA molecule. See also -- DNA, base pair, RNA.

Nucleus: the cellular organelle in eukaryotes that contains most of the genetic material.

Nude Mice: mice born with a congenital absence of the thymus. The blood and thymus-dependent areas of the lymph nodes and spleen are depleted of lymphocytes.

Null Hypothesis: this hypothesis, symbolized by H0, is a statement claiming that there is no difference between the experimental and population means. The alternative hypothesis (H1) is the opposite of the null hypothesis. Often in research we need to be able to test for both the positive and adverse outcomes, therefore a two-tailed hypothesis is chosen, even though the expectation of the experiment is in a particular direction.

Number of Confirmed Cases of Measles: the number of cases from measles confirmed by laboratory, in a specific year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Confirmed Cases of Poliomyelitis: the number of cases from poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus confirmed by laboratory in a specific year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Infant Deaths, Reported: the number of deaths in children under 1 year of age in a given year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area, expressed as number of deaths, as reported from the national health authority.

Number of Maternal Deaths, Reported: the number of maternal deaths in a given year and the number of live births in that same year for a given country, territory, or geographic area, as reported from the national health authority. Maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within the 42 days after termination of that pregnancy, regardless of the length and site of the pregnancy, due to any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy itself or its care, but not due to accidental or incidental causes.

Number of Outpatient Care Facilities: the number of outpatient health care facilities, affiliated to all health institutions, in operation during a given year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area. Outpatient health care is defined as any professional encounter or contact, as an act of health service, between a non-hospitalized individual and a health worker responsible for the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, or referral of that person in that encounter. Outpatient health care facility is defined as any type of physical area primarily designated to deliver outpatient health care services. Institutional affiliation includes any outpatient health care facility managed by the Ministry of Health or by a governmental equivalent, by Social Security systems, including those for the Army and Police Forces, and by private, for-profit or non-profit, voluntary-driven or not, organizations.

Number of Registered Cases of Cholera: the number of cases registered from cholera in a specific year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Registered Cases of Dengue: the number of cases registered from dengue in a specific year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Registered Cases of Diphtheria in Children Under Age 5: the number of cases registered from diphtheria in children less than 5 years old in a specific year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Registered Cases of Human Rabies: the number of cases registered from human rabies in a specific year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Registered Cases of Malaria: the number of cases registered from malaria in a specific year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Registered Cases of Pertussis in Children Under Age 5: the number of incident cases registered from whooping cough in children less than 5 years old in a specific year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Registered Cases of Plague: the number of cases registered from plague in a specific year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Registered Cases of Tetanus Neonatorum: the number of cases registered from neonatal tetanus in a specific year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Registered Cases of Yellow Fever: the number of cases registered from yellow fever in a specific year, for a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Registered Deaths due to AIDS: the number of deaths in total or by sex for which the underlying cause of death was Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (ICD-9 codes 279.5 or 279.6; 042-044; ICD-10 codes B20-B24) for a given year, in a given country, territory or geographic area.

Number of Registered Deaths due to Measles: the number of total registered deaths for which the underlying cause of death was measles (ICD-9 code 055; ICD-10 code B05) for a given year, in a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Number of Registered Deaths due to Neonatal Tetanus: the number of deaths for which the underlying cause of death was neonatal tetanus (ICD-9 code 771.3; ICD-10 code A033) for a given year, in a given country, territory, or geographic area.

Nurse: a person who has completed a program of basic nursing education and is qualified and authorized in his/ her country to practice nursing in all settings for the promotion of health, prevention of illness, care of the sick and rehabilitation.

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