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QALY (Quality-Adjusted Life-Years): a measure that combines mortality and quality of life gains (outcome of a treatment measured as the number of years of life saved, adjusted for quality).

Qualitative and Quantitative: HIA tries to balance qualitative and quantitative evidence. It involves an evaluation of the quantitative, "scientific" evidence where it exists but also recognizes the importance of more qualitative information. This may include the opinions, experience and expectations of those people most directly affected by public policies and try to balance the various types of evidence (Barnes and Scott Samuel, 1999). Generally speaking, quantitative evidence is based on what can be counted or measured objectively whilst qualitative evidence cannot be measured in the usual ways and may more subjective, for example, encompassing people's perceptions, opinions and views.

Qualitative Variable: a variable or response that describes a quality rather than a quantity; qualitative variables are usually described in words rather than numbers.

Quality: a character, characteristic, or property of anything that makes it good or bad, commendable or reprehensible; thus, the degree of excellence that a thing possesses.

Quality of Basic Amenities: one of the aspects of the responsiveness of health systems whereby non-health enhancing physical attributes of health care units, such as cleanliness of the facility, adequacy of furniture and quality of food, are paid attention to.

Quality of Medical Care: the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge.

Quality of Pharmaceutical Products: the suitability of drugs for their intended use is determined by:

  • Their efficiency weighed against safety, according to label claim, or as promoted or publicized
  • Their conformity to specifications regarding identity, purity and other characteristics.
The quality assurance of pharmaceutical products is a wide-ranging concept covering all matters that individually or collectively influence the quality of a product. It is the totality of the arrangements made to ensure that pharmaceutical products are of the quality required for their intended use. The quality control of pharmaceutical products is a concept that covers all measures taken, including the setting of specifications, sampling, testing and analytical clearance, to ensure that the raw materials, intermediates, packaging materials and finished pharmaceutical products conform with established specifications for identity, strength, purity and other characteristics.

Quantitative Variable: a variable or response that describes a quantity rather than a quality; quantitative variables are usually described in numbers as well as, or instead of, words.

Quasi-Experimental Research Design: research designs that allow researchers to take an experimental approach without full experimental control; usually, these designs do not include random assignment of subjects but do include supplementary cross-checks for validity, and may also include the use of control groups.

Quasi-Experimental Study: a study with non-random assignment of participants to groups, usually because it would be unethical or unfeasible to randomize.

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